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新时代 新莲池 新文人·刘金柱河北大学文学院院长(文)

Liu jinzhu, dean of school of arts, hebei university



China Yixing network/editor/Cheerful


Baoding xinlianchi academy


"Lotus leaf he tiantian" the 2nd Chinese visual art biennale and new lotus pond ink invitational exhibition


Liu jinzhu (7th l), dean of school of arts, hebei university, attends the 2nd Chinese visual arts biennale and the new lotus pond ink invitational exhibition


Liu jinzhu (front row, first from left), dean of school of arts, hebei university, attends "lotus leaf he tiantian", the 2nd Chinese visual art biennale and the new lotus pond water ink invitational exhibition


Liu jinzhu (front row, first from right), dean of school of arts, hebei university, attends the "lotus leaf he tiantian", the 2nd Chinese visual art biennale and the new lotus pond water ink invitational exhibition


Liu jinzhu (front row, first from right), dean of school of arts, hebei university, attends the "lotus leaf he tiantian", the 2nd Chinese visual art biennale and the new lotus pond water ink invitational exhibition


Liu jinzhu (front row, first from right), dean of the school of arts, hebei university, speaks at the "lotus leaf he tiantian", the 2nd Chinese visual arts biennale and the new lotus pond water ink invitational exhibition

新时代 新莲池 新文人



New era new lotus pond new literati

-- written before the invitation exhibition of "lotus leaf he tiantian" themed ink painting at xinlianchi international, the second Chinese visual arts biennale

Liu jinzhu, dean of school of arts, hebei university



In the new era of male safety, lotus pond blossoms.

Literati new ink, reforming the mountains and rivers.


     New male, under the new era, with the fresh air of male AnXin area, new lianchi college baoding China China hosted the second new visual art biennale lotus pond water ink invitational exhibition, hebei university, college of liberal arts, lianchi college graduate school as a first party from the academic unit, make the college with a strong background, academic background and literary background, artists, curators and invited Australia denise as international curators, makes the exhibition under the new era with the new international vision. Xinlianchi academy is located in the west lake of baoding.


     After the 19th CPC national congress, China entered a new era. The establishment of xiongan new district also brought new vitality to baoding. Recently, the central committee of the communist party of China and the state council have announced a major decision: to revive traditional culture. "Culture is the blood of the nation and the spiritual home of the people. Cultural confidence is a more fundamental, deeper and more enduring force. Chinese culture unique ideas, wisdom, tolerance, verve, added the Chinese people and the Chinese nation deep confidence and pride of Chinese excellent traditional culture diversity, the precious spiritual wealth, such as seeking common ground while putting aside differences, and the different approach, wen carry doctrine and narrations about enlightenment thought, xingshenjianbei, scene the aesthetic pursuit, frugal self-controlled, neutralization and life philosophy, etc., is the Chinese people's ideas, customs, life style, concentrated expression of the emotional style, nourish the rich variety of unique literature and art, science and technology, humanities academic, still has a profound impact. To pass on and develop the fine traditional Chinese culture, we must vigorously promote the ideological and cultural content that is conducive to promoting social harmony and encouraging people to be good. All these have laid a solid foundation for this exhibition. As artists from all over the world, it is our responsibility and even our hope to spread positive energy through culture and art. , of course, not all bureaucratic culture is authentic culture, even by bureaucracy means the piao zhuo school calligrapher's as ugly, fired Wang Yong WoXingHua etc to Chinese calligrapher's association, in fact now shuxie society has not always, more and more shelter evil people and practices, such as Su Shishu, xiao-yang Yang, liu dawei, events, etc. Our exhibition focuses more on the perspective of cultural literati, but also away from those charlatans, through the means of money and power to get the maximum benefit.


     Chinese academy culture can be traced back to private lectures in the spring and autumn period and the warring states period. Confucius, mencius and mozi, the founders of Confucianism, set up private schools. Confucius and mencius made great contributions to Chinese culture and education, but they did not establish the academy system. Mohism in the spring and autumn period and the warring states period was called "outstanding learning" together with Confucianism. During the qin and han dynasties, the imperial college was established with doctors of the five classics (the five classics refer to the yi, the spring and autumn period, poetry, calligraphy and rites). Taixue is the official school, equivalent to the national university, different from private school. In wei and jin dynasties, taixue still existed, but the academic atmosphere changed and metaphysics appeared.


     Academies began in the tang dynasty. During the sui and tang dynasties, the imperial civil examination system was implemented, which changed the "recruitment", "selection of villagers from the countryside" and "nine goods of the central system" of the wei and jin dynasties. However, the academy of the tang dynasty was still in its infancy and had two functions in its development and evolution. One is to prepare for the imperial examinations. Second, some literati built a library among the mountains for reading and leisure. For example, the white deer cave academy was restored by zhu zi.


     Academy flourished in the song dynasty, its size, nature and function have also undergone significant changes. This is directly related to the rise of neo-confucianism. At the beginning of the northern song dynasty, the revival of Confucianism was launched, and a number of Confucian scholars and thinkers emerged. They taught Confucian classics everywhere, and many academies appeared. In his political career, fan zhongyan, a political reformer, set up a learning officer. Hu yuan and others gave lectures with the methods of "mingjing" and "political application". At the same time, sun fu and shi jie in the "three gentlemen of the early song dynasty" also gave lectures. With the further development of the Confucian movement, lecturing became popular. By the middle of the northern song dynasty, neo-confucianism was formally formed and the school named by the region was established successively. Zhou dunyi's "lian school", zhang zai's "guan school", cheng ercheng's "luo school", and su shi's and his son's "shu school" responded to each other. Colleges have sprung up in response. In the southern song dynasty, zhu zi established the "fujian study" in fujian. From the second "luo xue" to zhu zi's "min xue", it has experienced the process of four generations of imparting, during which there are academies. Where zhu zi went, he took building the academy as the primary task. Zhu zi himself built the famous wuyi jingshe (built in 1183, renamed wuyi academy in the Ming dynasty, and inscribed by emperor kangxi of the qing dynasty with the inscription "learn to reach the nature") and cangzhou jingshe (built in 1192, named bamboo forest jingshe at the beginning, renamed kaoting academy later, and inscribed with the inscription "great Confucian shize" by emperor kangxi of the qing dynasty). The famous bailudong academy (1179) and yuelu academy (1194) were rebuilt by zhu zi. Zhu zi was not only a great thinker but also an educator who made great contributions to the development of the academy.


     After the Ming dynasty, the academy continued to develop. Like zhu zi, wang yangming attached great importance to the establishment and construction of the academy. After the qing dynasty, academies spread all over the country, even in the most remote areas such as the northwest, as long as there are students to study, almost all have academies. Some academies, because of their great influence, were valued by the imperial court, "authorized" by the emperor, and given financial support. However, the establishment and teaching of the academies were still in accordance with their own rules. Therefore, they were basically private universities or schools.


     The academy plays an important role in the history of Chinese culture, education and academy, and plays an irreplaceable role in promoting the development of Chinese ancient education and academic thought. Especially after the song dynasty, the academy was no longer a subsidiary institution of the state education, but the mainstream of China's education development. The functions of the college are manifold. The primary function of a college is education. Among the numerous academies, the "revelation" written by zhu zi for bailudong academy is a representative one. Among them, "five religions", namely "five ethics", is moral ethics, based on human nature. In ancient times, there were primary schools and universities. Primary schools were the enlightenment or enlightenment education (also known as mengxue). In addition to reading and writing, they mainly cultivated virtue in the practical life of "sprinkling and coping". According to zhu zi, the university is the study of "putting knowledge into practice", with the purpose of sincerity, self-cultivation, family management, governance and world peace, namely the study of "internal sanctity and external kingship". Chinese academies have made great achievements and contributions in humanistic education. In connection with this, the academy is also an important place for the development of academic ideas, academic exchanges and academic creation, as well as a place to maintain public opinion. While cultivating talents, the academy also undertakes the task of academic development. Many thinkers and scholars, through the college teaching and exchange activities, continue to create ideas, form their own ideological system, the establishment of different schools, and promote the development of ideological and academic. They wrote books in the academy and constantly improved their theories, creating a lot of valuable spiritual wealth. The academy is also an important place for academic exchanges among scholars. For example, the famous "meeting of the goose lake" (1175) was an important academic exchange. Another important function of the academy is to comment on current events, criticize current malpractices and make political statements. Confucianism holds that Taoism is the guiding ideology of governing, and the academy is the important position to maintain it. Although Confucianism can not be the emperor, but to maintain the dignity of the road. Since Confucius and mencius, there has been this tradition, which was inherited by the theorists of song and Ming dynasties. They had few opportunities to directly participate in politics and implement the Confucian ideas. They mainly published their ideas through speeches and writings to influence the politics at that time.


      Lianchi academy belongs to the official school. In order to better carry forward the excellent traditional Chinese culture, deeply study and dig the cultural deposits of lianchi academy, and build the national academy cultural Renaissance demonstration base, lianchi academy, the school of literature of hebei university and xinlianchi academy jointly build "lianchi academy of hebei university". The three parties will conduct in-depth cooperation in academy construction and base construction, with lianchi academy as the root, xinlianchi academy and hebei university as the social vitality and academic vitality, and make use of the advantages of cultural talents in colleges and universities to cultivate a group of library ancient books rearrangement and repair talents, so as to continuously meet the needs of ancient books rearrangement and repair in our city. At the same time, it breaks through the existing management mode of tourism and training in lianchi academy museum and xinlianchi academy, and explores the new mode of interaction between universities and government departments from the strategic height of baoding city's cultural development, as well as the new mode of establishment of the academy's cultural Renaissance demonstration base. At the same time, we also hope to promote the development of community colleges, rural colleges, and promote the depth of baoding activities.


     The second Chinese visual arts biennale xinlianchi international "lotus leaf he tiantian" themed ink-wash invitational exhibition is the biggest boost for this cooperation, which is a new model for the establishment and expansion of a demonstration base for the revival of academy culture. 'what lotus leaf tiantian' reflect 'LianHe' cultural theme, is also a new era under the "harmony" culture, artists from around the world wash as material, using the literati feelings to create a literati ink painting spirit world, the "new lotus pool" of "new" word is not only a geographical concept, and gives a spirit of the concept of high.

在没有论述新文人之前,首先谈谈文人画。文人画的前提是文人,文人大部分出身都是读书人,文人士大夫出身。文人画(Southern School),亦称“士夫画”,中国画的一种。泛指中国封建社会中文人、士大夫所作之画,文人画强调的首先是文人,文人性,文人气质,文人学养以及对人类社会的哲学、宗教、思想、文化艺术的思考,当然文人画更强调精神性。文人画以别于民间画工和宫廷画院职业画家的绘画,北宋苏轼提出“士夫画”,明代董其昌称道“文人之画”,唐代王维为其创始者,并目为南宗之祖(参见“南北宗”)。但旧时也往往借以抬高士大夫阶层的绘画艺术,鄙视民间画工及院体画家。唐代张彦远在《历代名画记》曾说:“自古善画者,莫非衣冠贵胄,逸士高人,非闾阎之所能为也。”此说影响甚久。近代陈师曾发表了《文人画的价值》一文,对中国文人画进行了理论上的系统总结和阐释,认为“文人画有四个要素:人品、学问、才情和思想,具此四者,乃能完善。”徐渭在明代文人画脉系中是不可或缺的。通常“文人画”多取材于山水、花鸟、梅兰竹菊和木石等,借以发抒“性灵”或个人抱负,间亦寓有对民族压迫或对腐朽政治的愤懑之情,徐渭是兼有之。当然,近一百多年来,由于受西方意识形态的影响,题材更为广泛。他们标举“士气”、“逸品”,崇尚品藻,讲求笔墨情趣,脱略形似,强调神韵,很重视文学、书法修养和画中意境的缔造。姚茫父的《中国文人画之研究·序》曾有很高的品评:“唐王右丞(维)援诗入画,然后趣由笔生,法随意转,言不必宫商而邱山皆韵,义不必比兴而草木成吟。”历代文人画对中国画的美学思想,哲性思考,甚至依托于儒释道之说,以及对水墨、写意画等技法的发展,都有相当大的影响。

     Before discussing the new literati, first talk about literati painting. The premise of literati painting is literati, most of the literati are scholars, literati literati origin. Southern School, also known as "scholar painting", is a type of Chinese painting. It generally refers to the paintings made by Chinese people and literati in the feudal society of China. Literati paintings emphasize first of all the literati, literary humanity, literati temperament, literati learning and thinking of philosophy, religion, thought, culture and art of human society. Of course, literati paintings emphasize more on spirituality. Literati paintings are distinguished from those of folk painters and professional painters in the palace art academy. Su shi of the northern song dynasty proposed "literati paintings". Dong qichang of the Ming dynasty praised "literati paintings". However, in the old days, it was often used to elevate the painting art of the scholar-bureaucrat class and despise the folk painters and the courtyard painters. Tang dynasty zhang yan yuan "all previous dynasties famous painting record" once said: "since ancient times good painter, mo fei clothes noble, yishi gaoren, not the ability of the minister also. The effect was long-lasting. In modern times, Chen shi published the value of literati painting, which made a theoretical and systematic summary and interpretation of Chinese literati painting. He believed that "literati painting has four elements: character, knowledge, talent and thought, with which it can be improved. Xu wei was indispensable in the vein of literati painting in Ming dynasty. Usually, "literati paintings" are mostly drawn from landscapes, flowers and birds, plum, orchid, bamboo, chrysanthemum and wood and stone, etc., so as to express their "spirit" or personal aspirations, and also contain resentment against national oppression or decadent politics. Xu wei has both. Of course, in the past 100 years or so, due to the influence of western ideology, the themes have been more extensive. They marked "morale", "yipin", advocating zao, pay attention to the taste of writing, slightly similar, emphasis on verve, pay great attention to literature, calligraphy and painting in the creation of artistic conception. Yao mang fu's research on Chinese literati painting: a preface once had a very high evaluation: "the king of tang, right cheng (wei), applied poetry to painting, and then turned his interest from writing to painting. The literati paintings of the past dynasties had a great influence on the aesthetics and philosophy of Chinese paintings, even relying on the theories of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, as well as the development of techniques such as ink painting and freehand brushwork.


     Literati paintings have different pursuits in subject matter, ideological temperament and interest, and brush and ink skills, forming various styles and schools. Landscape painting and freehand brushwork of ink painting prevail, and now figure painting also adopts the means of exaggeration and deformation. Of course, anything can be used as the expressive material of literati painting now.


     Before the song dynasty, the origin of literati painting can be traced back to the han dynasty. Although the paintings were not handed down, they are recorded in ancient books. During the wei, jin, southern and northern dynasties, yao's "not learning to be a man, but entertaining himself" became the central argument of literati painting. The ancient literati respect it as the purpose of painting. In terms of literati paintings, zong bing's landscape and clear ambition, "clear mind to view the way, lying down to travel", fully reflects the mentality of literati to entertain themselves. Poetry prevailed in the tang dynasty, and wang wei, a great poet, applied poetry to painting, making later generations regard him as the originator of literati painting. His painting works became the model for later generations of literati painters, such as the picture of yuan anwo in snow (also called the picture of banana in snow). There is painting in poetry and poetry in painting. It is both a dream and a dreamland. His paintings have become popular and have been passed down from generation to generation. Before the song dynasty, Chinese painting had developed significantly, with the emergence of "three landscapes" and "xu luteiyi" flower and bird paintings.


     The imperial academy of painting was established in the song dynasty. According to deng chun, the author of "the succession of painting", song huizong personally presided over the painting academy of the northern song dynasty, emphasizing "likeness in form" and "dharma degree". Dharma degree is to learn traditional rigorous skills, and likeness in form is to reproduce objective things in a real and meticulous way. With realism and likeness as the dominant ideology, huizong developed the style of fine engraving. The painting style of xuanhe academy continued to develop in shaoxing academy in the southern song dynasty. Generally speaking, the court paintings of the two song dynasty both pursued a high degree of "realism", some art historians called the court paintings of the two song dynasty "the peak of Oriental realism art". Realistic art is sometimes a kind of bondage, the development of the pole is easy to the opposite. In the song dynasty, some literati painters with profound cultural accomplishment discovered this defect, and created a new path in theory and practice, and put forward the theory of literati painting for the first time.

苏东坡是第一个比较全面的阐明了文人画理论的文人,对于文人画体系形成起到了决定性的作用。首先,他提出了“士人画”这一概念,“观士人画,如阅天下马,取其意气所到。乃若画工,往往只取鞭策皮毛槽枥刍秣,无一点后发,看数尺许便倦。汉杰真士人画也。”(《东坡题跋•跋宋汉杰画》),其次,他抬高了画家王维的历史地位,并将文人画家与职业画家(画工)区分开来:“吴生虽绝妙,犹以画工论。摩诘得之于象外,有如仙鬲谢龙樊。”(凤翔八观•王维吴道子画) 再次,他倡导诗情画意的文人画风格,反对完全追求形似死板的画工风格,“味摩诘之诗,诗中有画。观摩诘之画,画中有诗。从绘画实践上看,苏轼的《枯木怪石图》使我们可以看到他的美学实践,另外文同的墨竹图与苏轼共同开创了“枯木竹石”的文人画题材。人物画方面,具有很高文学、书法、古物鉴赏能力的李公麟把唐代的“白画”创造性的发展为白描,这种脱离色彩的线条更加强调书法功力和抽象的审美情趣,更加符合文人的审美标准。南宋米芾、米有仁父子独创的“云山戏墨”和“米点皴”,俗称“米氏云山”或“米家山水”,标志着山水画以简代繁地转变,经元初的高克恭继承发展,对元明清的文人画产生了巨大影响。

     Su dongpo was the first scholar who comprehensively expounded the theory of literati painting and played a decisive role in the formation of literati painting system. First of all, he put forward the concept of "scholar painting". But if a painter often takes only the humble fodder for the furrows, without a single point to point, and looks at it for a few feet, he becomes weary. Han jie is a real scholar painting." Secondly, he raised the historical status of the painter wang wei and distinguished the literati painters from the professional painters (painters) : "although wu sheng was excellent, he still talked about painting. Mojie is like an elephant to li xie longfan. (fengxiang eight views, wang wei and wu daozi painting) again, he advocated the poetic style of literati painting, and opposed the completely rigid style of painting, "taste of poetry, poetry with painting. We examine the painting of the poem. From the perspective of painting practice, we can see su shi's aesthetic practice in his paintings of withered wood and strange stone. In addition, the ink and bamboo paintings of wen tong and su shi jointly created the literati painting theme of "withered wood and bamboo stone". In terms of figure painting, li gonglin, who had a high ability to appreciate literature, calligraphy and ancient objects, developed the "white painting" in the tang dynasty into a blank description. Such lines separated from colors emphasized calligraphy skills and abstract aesthetic taste, which was more in line with the aesthetic standards of literati. The "yunshan opera ink" and "rice point chapping" created by mi fu and mi youren in the southern song dynasty, commonly known as "mishi yunshan" or "mijia mountain", symbolized the transformation of landscape painting from simplicity to fandom, and the inheritance and development of gao kegong in the early yuan dynasty, which had a great impact on literati painting in the yuan, Ming and qing dynasties.

元代文人处境相当卑贱,因为马上民族本身的“重武轻文”问题,文人士大夫放弃仕进,疏于人事。在宋代主要作为仕宦文人业余文化生活的文人画,开始更多地转入在野文人手中,成为他们超越苦闷人生重返自然的一种方式与手段。画家心中的山水,寄寓了画家远离尘世的理想,融入画家忘情于大自然的超凡脱俗的自由心境,也渗入了无可奈何、忧思忧国的萧条淡泊之趣。随着元统治者吸收亡宋遗民参加政权和文化建设,在南北美术交流中,值得惊喜的是出现了在变革中影响一代绘画风气的赵孟頫。如果说苏轼是文人画的积极提倡者,那么赵孟頫就是开元代文人画风气的领袖。作为美术理论家,赵孟頫在《松雪斋集》中主张“以云山为师”,“作画贵有古意”和“书画同源”,为文人画的创作奠定了理论基础;董其昌论述道:“赵文敏(赵孟頫)问画道于钱舜举(钱选),何以称士气?钱曰:“隶体耳,画史能辨之,即可无墨而飞,不尔便入邪道,愈工愈远。”又引申为:“士人作画,当以草隶奇字之法为之,树如屈铁,山如画沙,绝去甜俗蹊径,乃为士气。都重视把书法的笔墨情趣引入绘画,勾勒线条亦具文人的典雅风格。在元代绘画实践上,元初以赵孟頫、高克恭等为代表的士大夫画家,提倡复古,回归晋唐和北宋的传统,主张以书法笔意入画,因此开出重气韵、轻格律,注重主观抒情的元画风气。元代中晚期的黄公望、王蒙、倪瓒、吴镇四家及朱德润等画家,弘扬文人画风气,以寄兴托志的写意画为旨,推动画坛的发展,反映消极避世思想 的隐逸山水,和象征清高坚贞人格精神的梅、兰、竹、菊、松、石等题材,广为流行。其代表人物倪云林就有一段具有代表意义的文人画论:“余之竹聊以写胸中逸气耳,岂复较其似与非、叶之繁与疏、枝之斜与直哉!或涂抹久之,他人视以为麻为芦,仆亦不能强辩为竹,真没奈览者何。”(倪瓒:《题为张以中画竹》)至此,文人山水画的典范风格至此形成。

     The situation of literati in yuan dynasty was quite humble, because of the problem of "emphasizing military force and neglecting literature", literati gave up official career and neglected personnel. In the song dynasty, literati paintings, mainly used as the cultural life of officials and literati in their spare time, began to be more and more transferred to the hands of literati in the wild, which became a way and means for them to go back to nature beyond their depressed life. The landscape in the painter's heart embodies the painter's ideal of being far away from the world, blends into the painter's free mind of being detached from the nature, and also infiltrates the depression of being indifferent to the helplessness and sorrow of the country. As the yuan rulers absorbed the remnants of the late song dynasty to participate in the political power and cultural construction, in the art exchanges between the north and the south, it was surprising that zhao meng-si, who had influenced the painting ethos of the generation during the revolution, appeared As if the active advocator of su shi is the literati paintings, Zhao Meng ð « – ¯ ethos is to drive the yuan dynasty literati paintings As art theorist, Zhao Meng ð « – ¯ advocated in the loose snow lent set "to yunshan", "painting you have another" and "the calligraphy and painting homology", laid a theory for the creation of the literati paintings Dong qichang argues: "wen-ming chao (Zhao Meng ð « – ¯) asked picture track in Qian Shunju (Qian Xuan), why said Qian said, "official body and ear, the history of painting can be distinguished, can fly without ink, not you will enter the heresy, more and more far away from the work." It is also extended as: "the scholar painting, when the grass scribe strange word method, such as qutie trees, picturesque sand mountains, must go to sweet vulgar way, is morale. Both of them attach great importance to introducing the taste of calligraphy into painting and delineating lines with the elegant style of literati. In the yuan dynasty painting practice, early yuan with Zhao Meng ð « – ¯, Gao Kegong represented by the literati painters, advocate restoring ancient ways, return to the tradition of jin and northern song dynasty, advocate a calligraphic style of calligraphy show, so leave artistically, rules, pay attention to the subjective lyrical yuan paintings Middle-late stage of yuan dynasty, huang gongwang, wang meng, NiZan, wu zhen, four and Zhu Derun painter, carry forward the literati paintings, to send xing, tzu chi's xieyi painting to promote the development of painting, reflect the negative bishi thought has the landscape, and the symbol of lofty virtuous personality spirit of plum, orchid, bamboo, chrysanthemum, pine, stone and other subjects, widely popular. Ni yunlin, the representative figure, had a piece of literati painting theory with representative significance: "my bamboo can be used as a way to write the ease of breath in my chest. Or daub for a long time, others think hemp as reed, the servant also can't argue for bamboo, really did not nai see who. (ni zan: titled zhang yizhong's bamboo painting) thus, the typical style of literati landscape painting came into being.

明代初年画家分为两派,一派始忠于宋元文人画的传统,另一派是复古派,即明初复兴的皇家画院中继承南宋“马夏”院体山水画传统的戴进、吴伟等人。但“吴门派”为代表的明代文人画,扫除了“复辟”的“院体”画,把元人奠定的文人水墨风格推向更高的一个阶段,其主要代表人物有沈周、文征明、唐寅与仇英。吴派画家的主要成员大多属于“诗书画”三绝的文人名士,他们敏感或切身体验到仕途的险恶以及苦难经历,于是淡于仕进,优游林下,以诗文书画自娱,他们尚意趣、精笔墨、继承“士气”的元人绘画传统,表现自己的品格情怀。“青藤白阳”更是把文人画的大写意花鸟画推向极致,陈老莲把人物画推向极致。晚明松江派董其昌一出,拓展文人山水画新境界。至此,文人画在实践和理论上均已经发展成熟,而董其昌则予以完美的总结,遂使以文人画为主要特征的中国传统山水画臻于完全成熟的境地。董其昌对于绘画的最大影响,在于他提出了山水画“南北宗”和 “文人画”的理论:“文人之画自王右丞始,其后董源、僧巨然、李成、范宽为嫡子,李龙眠、王晋卿、米南宫及虎儿皆从董巨得来,直至元四家黄子久、王叔明、倪云镇、吴仲圭皆其正传,吾朝文、沈则又遥接衣钵。若马、夏及李唐、刘松年,又是李大将军之派,非吾曹易学也。(《画禅室随笔•画源》)”

     In the early Ming dynasty, the painters were divided into two groups: one group was loyal to the tradition of literati painting in the song and yuan dynasties, and the other group was the retro school, namely dai jin and wu wei, who inherited the tradition of landscape painting in the "maxia" courtyard of the southern song dynasty in the Royal Academy of painting revived in the early Ming dynasty. However, the literati paintings of the Ming dynasty, represented by the "wu men school", swept away the "courtyard style" paintings of the "restoration" and pushed the literati ink painting style established by the yuan people to a higher stage. The main representatives were shen zhou, wen zhengming, tang Yin and qiu ying. Painter wu's main members mostly belong to the quiet "poem calligraphy" literati celebrities, they sensitive or personal experience to the career of evil and suffering experience, so weak in shijin, next to forests, to recreate poems calligraphy and painting, they still interest, pen and ink, inherit the tradition of "morale" they judged the yuan paintings, the character of the show their feelings. "White sun on a green vine" pushed the freehand flower-and-bird painting of literati painting to the extreme, and Chen laolian pushed the figure painting to the extreme. In the late Ming dynasty, songjiang sent dong qichang to expand the new realm of literati landscape painting. At this point, literati painting has developed and matured both in practice and in theory, and dong qichang made a perfect summary, thus making the Chinese traditional landscape painting with literati painting as the main feature reach a complete maturity. Dong qichang for drawing the biggest influence, is that he put forward a landscape painting "north and south" and "literati painting" : the theory of "literati painting since right wang cheng, followed by dong, monk JuRan, li cheng, fan k 'uan DiZi, Li Longmian, Wang Jinqing, the nangongshan rice and cub are derived from Dong Ju, until yuan four Huang Zijiu, Wang Shuming, NiYun town, Wu Zhonggui all its of, my dynasty, shen, and pick up the mantle. Ruoma, xia, li tang and liu songnian were also sent by general li, not cao yi. (" painting meditation room essays • painting source ")

南北宗论以禅喻画,借用禅宗“南顿北渐”的特点,比喻山水画南宗画崇尚士气、 尚质朴、重笔墨,而北宗画则是画工画,重功力、重形似;南北宗论强调文人画概念,并梳理其宗派体系。从董其昌本人的绘画实践来看,这意味着以书法修养融入绘画实践,“士人作画,当以草隶奇字之法为之”;以笔墨韵味代替造型原则。董其昌还强调文人画的“士气”。

    Using the characteristics of "nandong spreading to the north" of zen Buddhism, the theory of south-north sect refers to the south sect of landscape painting, which advocates morale, is still simple and emphasizes ink and brush, while the north sect of landscape painting emphasizes skill and likeness. The northern and southern patriarchal school emphasized the concept of literati painting and sorted out its sectarian system. From the perspective of dong qichang's painting practice, it means to integrate calligraphy cultivation into painting practice. Replace modelling principle with lasting appeal of pen and ink. Dong also emphasized the "morale" of literati paintings.

董其昌的南北宗论及其绘画实践,哺育了明清一大批山水画家,其中佼佼者,当为画史所称的“四王吴恽”。四王借鉴董其昌南北宗论,对山水画南宗运动推行、绍述,他们以师古为名,对南宗画的创作实践进行系统总结。在四王正统画派之外,还有石涛、八大山人和扬州八怪为代表的革新派,八大山人的简练、石涛的奇僻。身为明末遗民,他们在书画中寄寓国破家亡之痛,八大笔法恣肆、放纵、简括、凝练,造形夸张,意境冷寂。石涛努力体察自然,鄙视陈陈相因,亦步亦趋的画家,主张“笔墨当随时代”,“法自我立”,面向生活“搜尽奇峰打草稿”。他的主张对后世的“扬州画派”、“ 扬州八怪”、虚谷、赵之谦、任伯年、吴昌硕等都起到了深刻的影响。

    Dong qichang's theories on the northern and southern dynasties and his painting practices nurtured a large number of landscape painters in the Ming and qing dynasties. Drawing on dong qichang's theory of south-north sect, the four Kings carried out and described the movement of south sect of landscape painting. In addition to the orthodox painting school of the four Kings, there are reformers represented by shi tao, ba ba shan ren and the eight eccentric artists of yangzhou, the simplicity of ba ba shan ren and the eccentricity of shi tao. As the late Ming dynasty, they in painting and calligraphy to house the pain of destruction, eight strokes wanton, indulgent, concise, concise, exaggerated, the mood is cold and silent. Shi tao tried to observe nature, despise Chen xiangyin, the painter of the pace, the idea of "brush and ink should follow The Times", "law self-establishment", facing life "search all qifeng make draft". His opinions had a profound influence on later generations of yangzhou painting school, yangzhou eight eccentric artists, konggu, zhao zhiqian, ren bonian and wu changshuo.


      Since modern times, there have been three debates on Chinese painting. The core issue is how to treat traditional Chinese painting characterized by literati painting, whether to inherit or abandon it, westernize it or completely inherit the tradition. In the first debate, kang youwei and Chen duxiu demanded an art revolution and completely adopted western realistic techniques to transform painting, while Chen shizeng and others maintained the status and value of Chinese literati painting and published the article the value of literati painting, which made a theoretical and systematic summary and interpretation of Chinese literati painting. The second time was the "sketch is the foundation of all plastic arts" proposed by xu beihong in the 1940s and 1950s. He advocated that the study of Chinese painting in art colleges and universities should start from sketch, while pan tianshou and others advocated the restoration of Chinese painting department and the independent development and teaching of Chinese painting should get rid of the influence of western painting. The third is since the 1980s, wu guanzhong put forward the concept of modern painting, Chinese painting to revolutionize. From the perspective of creative practice, modern Chinese painting has such three roads, and each produced a master. First, wu changshuo, qi baishi, huang binhong and lu yanshao inherited traditional painting and continued to explore and innovate. Secondly, liu haisu, pan tianshou and li keran based on traditional Chinese painting and drawing on western painting techniques. The third is the use of western painting techniques, and the integration of the western schools of xu beihong, Lin fengmian.


      By the 1980s, Mr. Li was still working on the new concept of literati painting. In the early 1990s, li xianting wrote an article titled "exhibition form and the innovation of Chinese ink painting" : "Chinese ink painting, Musical Instruments and calligraphy, and even the reciting of poems and tea have always been the symbol of the taste of life for literati and literati to chat with each other when they are helping the world. Therefore, "playing" as a high-level appreciation form of literati ink painting has an immeasurable influence on the form of Chinese ink painting scrolls and the aesthetic standards of the charm of brush and ink.


     But from my perspective, it is known as the literati painters a lot of people are without system of Chinese traditional culture training, even don't have enough training, of course, this is also one of my wishes, we the show as much as possible to choose better accomplishment of artists exhibition, cultural background and is not only a traditional Chinese culture. After the May 4th new culture movement, the world culture crossed and permeated each other, and had a new look and significance.


        Now I'm going to talk about the new literati. For our exhibition, the new literati here also means two things. Firstly, it is the spiritual state of the current literati intellectuals under the background of the new era. For our exhibition, it refers to the literati ink works created by the current literati artists. Second, we have the exhibition is an exhibition of an international context, we selected artists from two groups of people, is part of Chinese traditional literati painters, they used the traditional "poem calligraphy and seal of the literati feelings, in the form of literati paintings, is I was in for a while a big end of the literati painters in the locus of context as a clue, Such as xu-guang zhang Wang Chuantong and traces, xie hai little emotional appeal of jiangnan literati feelings, Tang Shuan freehand brushwork in traditional Chinese landscape, ocean's jian-ping liang northwest amorous feelings and zen, Ren Zi qian q chan asked, zou breeze of spring, Wei Zheng self-consciousness of character, Wu Zhenhuan avenue to Jane, guitar zhangcao means, Liang Changsheng ghosts from the seas line-drawing, tie-jun li hordes of imposing manner, xiao qian parent compatibility of literary writing and QuPu fair and inclusive, lu three piao zhuo, cheung's overwhelming, zhang jh literati feelings and so on; There is a certain consciousness of contemporary style and deeply by the traditional culture of artists such as Shao Yan that had a syringe for pen ink works, the idea of huangyan ink painting, zhang qiang, blind to write, hu and bulky ink device, flourishing forget at gm ink, Wang Yiqiong smoke ink, JiGongMin universe is boundless, Lv Zi really operator trace, wb image of the ink, mager of zhongyuan feelings and the feelings of the south China sea and so on. Another part invites foreign artists or Chinese artists with international background and ink works with western abstract expression style. Artists such as Harvard University c imagery of ink painting and installation, shenyang in the root of the university of Oxford artists the interaction of water and ink, Australian artist denise Chinese complex, Canadian artist XuanYongSheng ink triangle, France Chen Gonghan concept of ink, Qi effect taking peace desire, amorous feelings of India, India's bharat siblings, south Korean artist PiaoJian child lesser with gentle, meilan jin eastern zen, Japanese artist is a movie every background, he (she) works with typical Western Europe and the United States or east Asia style.


        The main form of our works in this exhibition is the scroll, which is first and foremost suitable for the antique architectural style of xinlianchi academy. Moreover, the scroll itself is a way of reading, but also a kind of aesthetic way, "play" also as a senior appreciation form of literati ink painting.


      "A new era, new lianchi, new literati" is our basic tone of the show, all the works' LianHe is basically designed specially for the academy culture, the literati culture theme exhibition, with the help of the fresh air of The Times, also to take this opportunity to promote college culture, literati culture, hope we can get more people to help the exhibition and support.


he 18th day of march in the lunar calendar

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