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传承、革新、跨越,让民族文化绽放光芒——宜兴吴门紫砂陶艺百年传承纪实(二)

Inheritance, Innovation and leap-over, Let National Culture Shine -- A century-old Record of Inheritance of Purple Sand Pottery in Wumen, Yixing (2)




中国艺星网/编发/愉快

Chinese art star/editor/happy




紫砂鼻祖

The originator of purple sand

宜兴吴氏家族是宜兴的名门望族,明代以前的历史因年代久远,资料困乏,留下的遗存不多。但到了明代,可考资料就比较丰富了,吴门的资料能查到不少。从这些资料看来,宜兴吴家是名副其实的名门望族,从科举情况便可见一斑。

科举制度是皇权与贵族博弈斗争的产物。到了明代,明太祖朱元璋深知地主阶级和知识分子对政权的重要性,洪武三年(1370 年)朱元璋就诏告天下:“朕将亲策于庭,第其高下而任之以官,使中外文臣皆由科举而进,非科举者毋得与官。”可见封建皇帝对科举重视的程度。在科举取仕,千军万马过独木桥的时代,宜兴吴氏是其中的佼佼者。在宜兴望族里中举最多的氏族是吴氏家族,先后就有156人,世称科举世家。而宜兴的古代10宰相,吴氏独占3人,更是宜兴望族之首,江南科举望族。宋代时,从吴灌开始,儿子吴姤、孙儿吴宗尹等上下六代,代代出进士,“六世进士”实属罕见。缘于此,古代宜兴就流传了很多科举佳话,如吴氏“六世进士”“一邑三魁”、曹氏“一门三进士”、万氏“兄弟进士”、储氏“五凤齐飞”、徐氏“一门三翰林”。

宜兴吴门不仅是科举望族,在茶艺、紫砂、书画、收藏、甚至园林上都占有一席之地。

耕读传家,吴氏多有志于科举,但也有一鹤一鹿游山林的隐逸高人——吴纶。吴纶是明代宜兴最有名望的慈善家、茶家。《宜兴县志》记载:“吴纶,字大本,以子仕贵封礼部员外郎。自垂髫时形癯神异比常,不乐仕进,雅志山水,日与骚人墨士往来倡酬,于其中有陶然自得之趣。性喜茶,于名泉异荈悉远致而品尝之,焚香静坐一室,或读太史公传,诵陶靖节诗,或临写唐子西山静似太古章,遒然赵松雪笔法,人争得之。春和秋爽,载笔床茶灶,随以一鹤一鹿,遨游于武林吴苑间。时身拜迤恩,而葛巾野服逍遥如故,人望之皆指为神仙侣也。寄号‘心远’,寿跻八十有三。”

吴纶是当时宜兴一带的一位热心公益事业的慈善家。他研求古药方,自制药饵为百姓治病,多有奇效。碰到灾荒年成,有的人为富不仁,有米不肯卖,以求重利。而他却独开仓廪,以平价救济灾民。有时还开粥厂,救济难民,做了好多善事。

吴纶是苏东波的崇拜者,非常喜欢苏东波的诗词,喜欢苏东波的书法。明弘治年间,蜀山东坡祠年久失修,只剩残垣断壁,吴纶看后十分心疼,便发心出资修复东坡祠。但东波寺场院被游民搭棚占据着,无法实施。面对游民,一介书生束手无策,没有能力处置这些占据东坡祠不肯离开的游民。思前想后,他便登门找了工部侍郎沈晖,请沈晖大人出面与府、县官员交涉,让游民搬出东坡祠旧址。游民们离开之后,他便出巨资对东坡祠进行了修葺,经过一番努力,终于在弘治十四年(1501年)十二月修葺完成,而该年七月二十八日正是苏东坡逝世四百周年纪念日。从此此后,年年岁岁的苏东波祭祀日,他都会去拜祭苏翁。

自蜀山东坡祠修缮完成之后,文人墨客趋之若鹜,常去祭拜。明代官员、文学家顾璘还留下了杰作《宜兴谒东坡祠》:“学士祠堂傍水扃,蜀山萧索向谁青。归魂省识毗陵道,好事空传楚颂亭。万古云霄瞻气象,满林风雨护精灵。湖东月出光如许,照见燕山相国铭。”

吴纶还是宜兴茶文化和紫砂文化的倡导者和创始者。他毕生坚持传统茶艺的煮茶法,以种茶、制茶、品茶为乐,以隐逸山林怡然自得为趣,广交江南士子文人,竭力弘扬茶艺,堪称“阳羡茶人”(阳羡,宜兴故名。县名。置阳羡县,属会稽郡)。

吴纶与文征明(明代杰出画家、书法家、文学家。其诗、文、书、画无一不精,在画史上与沈周、唐伯虎、仇英合称“明四家”,在诗文上与祝允明、唐寅、徐祯卿并称“吴中四才子”。传世画作有《千岩竞秀》《万壑争流》》,书作有《西苑诗》《渔父辞》等,著有《甫田集》)、沈周(明代杰出书画家,与文徵明、唐寅、仇英并称“明四家”。沈周一生未应科举,始终从事书画创作,是明代中期文人画“吴派”的开创者,主要作品有《庐山高图》《秋林话旧图》《石田集》《客座新闻》等)等人交善,在文化领域取得了很高成就,更是当时茶艺革新的领军人物。

吴纶是茶文化的资深大家,一生坚持传统的煮茶法。而吴纶之子吴颐山则一味坚持泡茶法。当时,朱元璋要求废饼茶兴散茶,改煮、点茶法为泡茶法。但因为自唐代至元代,煮茶点茶的风气至少延续了上千年,其文化底蕴相当深厚。虽然朱皇帝的诏书下达了近百年,民间却依旧以煮、点茶为主,朝廷对此也采取默认态度。对此,吴颐山觉得抗旨是不对的,他认为,漠视明太祖诏定废团茶为散茶,以及煮、点茶为泡茶的国定新法于不顾,竟然违旨百余年而“弃天下事于不必为”。他在私人稿件中对此事深表遗憾,便想在推广泡茶法上有所作为。在吴颐山有这个想法之前,世上还没有专门泡茶的紫砂壶。专门泡茶的紫砂壶的产生,是吴颐山在大潮山福源禅寺读书之后。吴纶的儿子吴颐山入仕之前,在南山福源寺读书之暇,与诸多陶工一起“澄泥制壶,研求式样,代为署款”,积极开创用紫砂壶泡茶的新法,是宜兴紫砂文化的始祖和弘扬者。

大潮山原名大朝山,也叫南山。山中原有一寺。明代以前叫大朝福源禅寺。明永乐年,大朝山改称大潮山。


The Wu family of Yixing is a famous family in Yixing. Due to the long history and lack of data before the Ming Dynasty, there are not many relics left. But in the Ming Dynasty, can be more abundant information, Wu men can find a lot of information. According to these data, the Wu family in Yixing was a veritable famous family, which can be seen from the imperial examination.


The imperial examination system was the product of the game struggle between the imperial power and the nobility. In the Ming Dynasty, Emperor Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang knew the importance of the landlord class and intellectuals to the regime. In the third year of Hongwu Reign (1370), Zhu Yuanzhang told the world: "I will make my own decisions in the court, and appoint them as officials, so that all Chinese and foreign ministers will be promoted through the imperial examinations. It can be seen that the feudal emperor attached great importance to the imperial examination. In the era when thousands of soldiers and horses crossed a single-log bridge to get official in the imperial examination, the Wu family of Yixing was the outstanding one. Among the famous families in Yixing, the clan with the highest number of successful examinations is the Wu family, with 156 members successively, known as the Imperial Examination family. Of the 10 ancient ministers of Yixing, Wu had 3, which was the first of the famous families of Yixing and the famous family of Jiangnan Imperial Examination. In song dynasty, from the beginning of the filling and wu, wu son Gou and grandchild Wu Zongyin six generations, from a jinshi, jinshi "vi" is rare. For this reason, many stories of imperial examinations were spread in ancient Yixing, such as Wu's "six Jinshi" and "three queers in one City", Cao's "three Jinshi in one city", Wan's "Brother Jinshi", Chu's "Five Phoenixes flying together", and Xu's "Three Hanlin".


Yixing Wumen is not only a famous family in the imperial examination, but also occupies a place in tea art, purple sand, painting and calligraphy, collection, and even gardens.


Farming inheritors, Wu more interested in imperial examinations, but there is also a crane a deer tour mountain secluded lofty man - Wu Lun. Wu Lun is the Ming Dynasty Yixing most famous philanthropist, tea home. "Yixing County annals" records: "Wu Lun, the word big book, to Zi Shi your honor of the Ministry of Rites. Early on, early on, early on, early on, early on, early on, early on, early on, early on, early on, early on, early on, early on, early on. We are fond of tea and taste famous springs when we are different from famous springs. We burn incense and sit quietly in one room, or read the history of the Emperor Taishi, recite the poems of Tao Jing, or write the quiet western mountains of the Tang Dynasty like the ancient chapter, and wind-run Zhao Songxue's style of writing, people will win it. Spring and autumn cool, carrying the pen bed tea stove, with a crane a deer, roaming in the Wu Yuan. When the body Bayi, and Gejin wild suit free as ever, people all refer to God XianLv also. The number 'Far heart,' and advanced salva eighty three years."


Wu Lun was an enthusiastic philanthropist in Yixing area at that time. He researched ancient prescriptions and made his own baits to cure the people, many of which had miraculous effects. In the famine years, some people are rich and heartless. They refuse to sell rice in order to gain more money. And he opened his own granaries to provide relief at fair prices. Sometimes he opened a porridge factory, helped refugees, and did a lot of good.


Wu Lun is an admirer of Su Dongbo, like Su Dongbo's poetry, like Su Dongbo's calligraphy. Ming Hongzhi years, Shushan Dongpo temple in disrepair, only the ruins, Wu Lun after seeing very distressed, then send heart to repair Dongpo temple. However, Dongbo Temple yard is occupied by homeless people to build tents, unable to implement. In the face of nomads, a scholar helpless, unable to deal with these occupy Dongpo temple refused to leave the nomads. After thinking about it, he came to find the ministry of works chambermaid Shen Hui, please Shen Hui adults to negotiate with the government, county officials, let the homeless move out of Dongpo temple site. After the wanderers left, he spent a large sum of money to renovate the temple. After a lot of efforts, the renovation was completed in December 1501, the 14th year of Hongzhi. On July 28 of that year, it was the 400th anniversary of Su Dongpo's death. From then on, every year on the day of the sacrifice, he would pay homage to Suweng.


Since the restoration of Dongpo Temple in Shushan, scholars and writers have flocked to it and often paid homage to it. Ming Dynasty officials, writers Gu Lin also left a masterpiece "Yixing Ye Dongpo Temple" : "Ancestral hall of bachelor water, shut up to who green Shan Shu. Return soul province know Piling road, good air chuan Chu song pavilion. Eternal sky outlook weather, full forest wind and rain to protect the elves. Hudongyue light so, see Yanshan Prime minister Ming."


Wu Lun is also the advocate and founder of Yixing tea culture and purple sand culture. All his life, he adhered to the traditional tea brewing method, took tea planting, tea making and tea tasting as pleasure, and secluded mountains and forests as fun. He made extensive friends with scholars and literati in Jiangnan, and tried his best to promote the tea art. He was called "Yang Xian tea man" (Yang Xian, Yixing's name). County name. Set Yangxian County, belonging to Kuaiji County).


Wu Lun and Wen Zhengming (Ming Dynasty outstanding painter, calligrapher, litterati. His poetry, text, book, painting are all fine, in the history of painting with Shen Zhou, Tang Bohu, Qiu Ying together called "Ming four", in the poetry with Zhu Yunming, Tang Yin, Xu Zhen Qing said "Wu four talents". His paintings are "Thousands of Rocks Competing Show", "Thousands of Beggar Fighting for Flow", his books are "Xiyuan Poems" and "Yu Fu Ci", and his works are "Futian Collection". Shen Zhou (an outstanding calligrapher and painter in the Ming Dynasty, who was named "Ming Four Family" with Wen Zhengming, Tang Yin and Qiu Ying. Shen Zhou never passed the imperial examination in his life, but was always engaged in the creation of calligraphy and painting. He was the pioneer of the "Wu School" of literati painting in the mid-Ming Dynasty. His main works include "Lushan Mountain", "Autumn Forest Story", "Stone Field Collection", "Guest News", etc., and he made great achievements in the cultural field, and was a leader in the innovation of tea art at that time.


Wu Lun is a senior master of tea culture, all his life adhere to the traditional method of boiling tea. And Wu Lun's son, Wu Yishan, insisted on making tea. At that time, Zhu Yuanzhang required waste cake tea Xing loose tea, to boil, tea method for brewing. However, since the Tang Dynasty to the Yuan Dynasty, the custom of making tea has lasted for at least a thousand years, and its cultural heritage is quite profound. Although Zhu's imperial edict had been issued for nearly a century, the people still mainly boiled and ordered tea, and the imperial court also adopted a tacit attitude towards it. In this regard, Wu Yishan felt that it was wrong to resist the imperial decree. He believed that he ignored the new laws of the state, which ruled that the group tea was abolished as loose tea, and that the tea was boiled and ordered as brewing tea. He had violated the imperial decree for more than a hundred years and "abandoned the world." He expressed deep regret over the matter in his private writings and wanted to make a difference in the promotion of tea brewing. Before Wu Yishan had this idea, there was no special purple clay pot for making tea. It was after Wu Yishan studied at Fuyuan Zen Temple in the Spring Tide Mountain that the Zisha teapot was invented. Before Wu Lun's son Wu Yishan became an official, in his spare time studying in Fuyuan Temple in Nanshan, he worked with many potters to "make clay POTS, research patterns, and act as a representative", and actively pioneered the new method of making tea in purple clay POTS. He was the originator and promoter of purple clay culture in Yixing.


Spring tide Mountain formerly known as Dashao Mountain, also known as Nanshan. There was a temple in the mountain. Ming Dynasty before called the big Fuyuan Zen Temple. Ming Yongle year, Dachaoshan renamed spring tide mountain.



大潮山福源禅寺改称大潮山寺,不久又改名叫福源禅寺。大潮山福源禅寺是吴颐山弟弟吴佶岳父的家产(《阳羡瓷壶赋》赋序里说:“余祖拳石公(吴颐山) 读书南山。为吴佶岳父明侍郎沈晖旧业”,此处南山就是大潮山)。吴佶的岳父是当时的工部侍郎沈晖。沈侍郎当时有一首专门题这个寺的诗。诗曰:“太湖西拥大潮山,万丈青莲一水环。佛殿高凌银汉表,禅房多住白云间。散花龙女乘风去,乞食山僧带雨还。记得攀萝登绝顶,迎探月窟府尘寰。”

Chungshan Fuyuan Zen Temple was renamed Chungshan Temple and soon renamed Fuyuan Zen Temple. Fuyuan Temple in Spring Tide Mountain was the property of Wu Ji's younger brother's father-in-law. (The preface of "Yangxian Porcelain Pot" says: "Yu Zu Quan Shi Gong (Wu Yishan) studied in the South Mountain. For Wu Ji father-in-law Ming servant Shen Hui old industry ", here the south mountain is the spring tide mountain). Wu Ji's father-in-law was Shen Hui, then a servant of the Ministry of Works. Shen Lang had a poem dedicated to this temple at that time. Poetry said: "Taihu Lake west spring tide mountain, ten thousand feet green lotus a water ring. Buddhist hall Gao Ling silver Han table, Zen room more live between white clouds. Loose dragon female to ride the wind, mountain monk with rain. Remember to climb to the top, to explore the moon cave house."




明正德年间,提学副使吴颐山,携带书僮朱昌,读书于大潮山福源禅寺。去这里读书主要还是因为大潮山福源禅寺是吴颐山弟弟吴佶岳父的家产。该寺在元朝末年的时候被毁掉,明永乐初年才由僧人雪庵重建。明朝统十二年,高僧道性再次扩建,请沈晖恢复寺院明代以前“福源禅寺”的名字。

During the reign of Ming Zhengde, Wu Yishan, the deputy minister of learning, and Zhu Chang, his servant, studied in the Fuyuan Zen Temple in the Spring Tide Mountain. The main reason why I went here was that Fuyuan Temple in Spring Tide Mountain was the property of Wu Yishan's younger brother Wu Ji's father-in-law. The temple was destroyed at the end of the Yuan Dynasty and rebuilt by a monk named Xue 'an in the early years of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty. Ming Dynasty Tong 12 years, the monk Taoist expansion again, please Shen Hui restore the Ming Dynasty before the temple "Fuyuan Zen Temple" name.


吴颐山一生最大的成就,就是提倡用“茗壶”泡茶。他在大潮山福源禅寺中组织并设计制作了一种泡茶的紫砂壶,以“供”为壶,以“春”为茶。所以,他在茶壶上刻了“供春”二字。从此以后,这种冲泡散茶的紫砂壶就命名为供春壶。


Wu Yishan's greatest achievement in life was to advocate the use of "tea pot" to make tea. He organized and designed a kind of purple clay teapot for making tea in Fuyuan Zen Temple in Spring Mountain, with "serving" as the pot and "spring" as the tea. So, he carved the word "for spring" on the teapot. Since then, this kind of purple clay pot for brewing loose tea has been named spring pot.


吴颐山之所以取“供春”二字,是受到他朋友沈周(字启南,号石田,晚号白石翁,明代著名画家、书法家、文学家、医学家,长洲人。沈周出身富裕的书香绘画世家,少时师从陈宽学习诗文, 青年时期师从伯父沈贞,还有刘珏、杜琼、赵同鲁等学习绘画。其一生家居读书,吟诗作画,优游林泉,追求精神上的自由,从未应科举征聘,始终过着田园隐居生活。沈周与文徵明、唐寅、仇英并称“明四家”,是吴门画派的创始人,他师法元四家,并上溯董源、巨然,同时旁涉南宋院体画和浙派等,形成了独特的个人风格,在元明以来文人画领域有承前启后的作用。传世作品有《庐山高图》《魏园雅集图》《仿黄公望富春山居图》《沧州趣图》等。著有《石田集》《石田稿》《石田文钞》《石田咏史补忘录》《客座新闻》《续千金方》等,但大多散佚。)的影响。吴、沈两人谊切苔岑,感情深厚,经常来往,沈周有诗《铜官秋色别吴克学》,这个吴克学就是吴颐山的字。吴颐山就是从沈周的《落花》诗句中挑出了“供春”二字,作为壶名,且正合“壶供真茶”之意境。沈周的落花诗一共三十首,其中有一首诗的开头为“供送春愁上客眉”。落花诗由沈周首唱,文征明、吕常、徐真卿、唐寅等和诗。

吴颐山的供春紫砂壶充满了浓浓的文人雅士的情趣,一经问世便不同凡响,加之吴颐山及其家族在当时社会上的非凡影响力,一帮朋友都是当时有名望的文人雅士、社会名流,紫砂壶便成了当时上流社会书案茶几上的雅品。

因为吴颐山制作供春壶是在福源禅寺里进行的,寺里面的一些僧人也跟上他学会了捏造茗壶。吴颐山离开福源禅寺后,寺僧们就成了紫砂壶制作的指导老师。

鉴于吴颐山在福源禅寺的威望、社会上的名声和供春壶珍贵的纪念意义,明正德五年庚子(1510)的时候,福源禅寺将留存下来的好几把供春壶陈列在了寺内。陈列的古董圆的称“龙蛋壶”,方的称“印方壶”。后来,最初形态各异的一些紫砂壶,也陈列展示在“吴仕楠木厅”( 吴仕楠木厅系明正德年间进士吴仕故居。吴家世代忠良,吴仕出身官宦门第,曾任户部主事、提学副使,后升四品参政。因愤严蒿当道,托病不任,隐居乡间。

吴仕宅第建于明代,原座落在宜城西庙巷与白果巷间。有前宅、中宅、后宅三进,均为楠木结构。后历经战乱,仅存后进四间,为宜兴市级文物保护单位)里。


Wu Yishan took "for spring" two words, is by his friend Shen Zhou (word Qinan, number Shi Tian, late number Bai Shi Weng, Ming Dynasty famous painter, calligrapher, writer, medical scientist, Changzhou people. Born into a wealthy family of calligraphers and painters, Shen Zhou learned poetry from Chen Kuan in his youth, Shen Zhen from his uncle in his youth, and Liu Jue, Du Qiong, Zhao Tonglu and other painters. All his life, he read books at home, recited poems and painted pictures, swam luxuriously in forests and springs, and pursued spiritual freedom. He never applied for imperial examinations and always lived a pastoral life in seclusion. Shen Zhou, together with Wen Zhengming, Tang Yin and Qiu Ying, was known as the "Ming Four", the founder of the Wumen School of painting. He learned from the FA and Yuan four, traced back to Dong Yuan and Juran, and also related to the Southern Song Dynasty style painting and Zhejiang School, forming a unique personal style, which has played a connecting role in the field of literati painting since the Yuan and Ming dynasties. His works are "Lushan Mountain", "Wei Yuan Elegant Collection", "Huang Gongwang's Residence in Fuchun Mountain", "Cangzhou Interesting Picture" and so on. He wrote "Shitian Collection", "Shitian Draft", "Shitian Wenbanknote", "Shitian Xu History supplement forget record", "Guest news", "Xuqianfang", etc., but most of them were lost.) The influence of Wu and Shen cut Taicen friendship, deep feelings, frequent exchanges, Shen Zhou has a poem "Tongguan autumn color different Wu Ke Xue", this Wu Ke Xue is Wu Yishan's word. It is from Shen Zhou's poem "Fallen Flowers" that Wu Yishan picked out the word "for spring" as the name of the pot, which is exactly in line with the artistic conception of "pot for real tea". Shen Zhou wrote 30 poems about falling flowers, one of which begins with "Offering to send spring sorrow to a guest's eyebrow". The fallen flower poem was first sung by Shen Zhou, followed by Wen Zhengming, Lu Chang, Xu Zhenqing and Tang Yin.


Wu Yishan's spring purple clay pot is full of thick literati taste, once it came out was extraordinary, coupled with Wu Yishan and his family in the society of extraordinary influence at that time, a group of friends are famous literati, socialites, purple clay pot became the elegance of the upper-class society book tea table.


Because Wu Yishan made the jugs at the Fuyuan Zen Temple, some of the monks in the temple also learned to fabricate the jugs with him. After Wu Yishan left Fuyuan Zen Temple, the monks became the instructors for making purple clay POTS.


In view of Wu Yashan's prestige and social reputation in Fuyuan Temple, and the precious commemorative significance of the POTS, several POTS of the Fuyuan Temple were displayed in the temple in 1510, the fifth year of the reign of Emperor Zhengde of the Ming Dynasty. The round antique on display is called "Dragon Egg Pot", and the square one is called "seal square pot". Later, some of the original purple clay POTS of different shapes were also displayed in the "Wu Shi Nan Mu Hall" (Wu Shi Nan Mu Hall is the former residence of Wu Shi, a scholar in the Zhengde period of the Ming Dynasty. Wu family generation of good, Wu Shi from official family first, once served as the ministry of the chief, learning deputy, after rising four products to participate in politics. Because of anger Yan Artemisia, ill, seclusion in the countryside.



吴颐山的侄孙、清代文人吴梅鼎是吴颐山的侄孙,曾在《阳羡瓷壶赋》赋序里记叙:“余祖拳石公(吴颐山)读书南山(南山即大潮山,福源禅寺是明代大潮山里唯一一座寺庙,福源禅寺是紫砂文化的发祥地),为吴佶岳父明侍郎沈辉旧业。”《阳羡瓷壶赋》中赋诗赞曰:“彼新奇兮万变,师造化兮元功。信陶壶之鼻祖,亦天下之良工。”

在宜兴当地的传说中还有另一种说法,说是紫砂壶的创始人叫供春。传说他姓龚,名春。供春是明正德年间提学副使吴颐山的书童,陪伴主人吴颐山在金沙寺读书,并学着寺中老和尚的样子做的茶壶。故事大概是这样的:“相传紫砂壶的形成是明武宗正德年间以后,当时家僮龚春侍候主人吴颐山住在金沙寺里读书,见一老僧炼土制壶、成品精美,就在空闲的时候仔细研究老僧的制陶技术、因其聪慧,一天天的看啊学啊,久而久之,逐渐掌握了这一套复杂的技术、他私下取了一点老僧制壶后洗手沉淀在缸底的陶土做坯,把寺旁大银杏树的树瘿作为壶身的表面花纹、当时他没有工具,只有一把茶匙用来挖空壶身,并完全用手指按平胎面,捏炼成型。他的茶壶烧成后,色泽如栗,活似古代的铜器,形制朴茂大方,敦实周正,表面上还隐约可以看到手指螺纹,显得古秀可爱!”但在吴颐山的家谱《吴氏家乘》中却找不到龚春其人,《吴氏家乘》里记载的解元公吴颐山的书童叫朱昌,而不叫龚春。吴颐山的书童朱昌,原籍浙江钱塘,《吴氏家乘》里把朱昌列为“义仆”。《浙江通志》《钱塘县志》、万历《宜兴县旧志》、康熙《宜兴县旧志》以及嘉庆二年的《重刊宜兴县旧志》均记载:朱昌不忘记旧主之恩,远远胜过田汝成笔下的义仆阿寄。

学术界也对“历史上究竟有没有供春其人”“供春壶是否是供春本人所做”持怀疑态度,这个怀疑应该是对的。吴颐山住在金沙寺里读书更与事实不符。

再说,紫砂供春壶是吴颐山书童朱昌所做也不现实。因为吴颐山在寺庙读书的时候,书童朱昌只是个十三、四岁孩子,一个从来没有做过陶器的十二三岁的一个小孩,哪有可能突然之间就能做出精美绝伦的传世紫砂壶。再者,书童帮主人整理房间,整理书籍、笔墨,一起陪读、照顾主任生活起居的佣人,哪有时间、哪有条件去学习做壶。没有几年学习的功力,能做出流传后世极品,那更是不可能的。

当然,传说就是传说,以讹传讹很正常,不必去较真。


Wu Yishan's great-nephew, the Qing Dynasty scholar Wu Meiding is Wu Yishan's great-nephew, had written in the preface of "Yang Envy Porcelain Pot Fu" : "Yu Zu Quan Shi Gong (Wu Yishan) studying in the south mountain (South mountain is the spring tide mountain, Fuyuan Zen Temple is the only temple in the spring mountain of the Ming Dynasty, Fuyuan Zen Temple is the birthplace of purple sand culture), for Wu Ji's father-in-law Shen Hui, Ming servant. The poem "Yang Envy Porcelain Pot Fu" praises: "He is a novelty of all kinds of changes, the teacher of nature, Yuan Gong. The originator of the pottery pot is the best worker in the world."


In Yixing local legend, there is another saying that the founder of the teapot was named Jichun. Legend has it that his surname was Gong and his first name was Chun. Jichun was a bookboy of Wu Yishan, the deputy minister of learning during the reign of Zhengde in the Ming Dynasty. He accompanied his master Wu Yishan to read in Jinsha Temple and learned to make tea POTS like the old monks in the temple. The story goes something like this: "Legend has it that the zisha teapot was formed after the reign of Zhengde of Emperor Wu of Ming Dynasty, when Gong Chun, his servant, waited on his master Wu Yishan to study in Jinsha Temple. Seeing an old monk refining an earthen teapot with exquisite products, he would carefully study the old monk's pottery making techniques in his spare time. Due to his wisdom, he watched and learned from it day by day. Gradually mastering this complex technique, he took a little pot made by an old monk in private, washed the clay deposited on the bottom of the pot to make a blank, and used the gall of a large ginkgo tree near the temple as the surface pattern of the pot. At that time, he had no tools but a teaspoon to hollow out the pot, and pressed it into shape completely with his fingers, according to the flat tread. After his teapot is cooked, the color is like chestnut, just like ancient bronze ware. The shape is simple and generous, solid and square. On the surface, you can vaguely see the finger thread, which looks lovely and ancient!" However, Gong Chun could not be found in Wu Yishan's family tree, Wu's Family Attendant. According to Wu Yishan's family attendant, the name of his bookboy was Zhu Chang, not Gong Chun. Wu Yishan's bookboy Zhu Chang, originally from Qiantang, Zhejiang Province, was listed as a "righteous servant" in Wu Family Attendants. Zhejiang General Records, Qiantang County Records, Wanli Old Records of Yixing County, Kangxi Old Records of Yixing County and Jiaqing's Republication Old Records of Yixing County all recorded that Zhu Chang did not forget the kindness of the old master and was far better than Tian Rucheng's righteous servant A Post.


The academic circle is also skeptical about "whether there is a man who offered spring in history" and "whether the pot was made by the man himself". This doubt should be right. The fact that Wu Yishan lived in the Jinsha Temple and read is even more inconsistent with the fact.


Moreover, purple sand for spring pot is Wu Yishan's bookboy Zhu Chang do not realistic. Because when Wu Yishan studied in the temple, Zhu Chang was only 13 or 14 years old, a 12 or 13 year old boy who had never made pottery before. How could he suddenly make the exquisite purple clay pot handed down to the world? Moreover, the bookboy helps the master to tidy up the room, arrange books, pens and ink, study together, take care of the director's daily servants, which has the time, which has the conditions to learn to make a pot. Without a few years of learning skills, can be handed down to the future, it is impossible.


Of course, a legend is a legend, and it is normal to spread false information. There is no need to be se























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