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清华大学美术学院绘画系教授、博士生导师包林·张仃的写生

Bao Lin, professor and doctoral supervisor, department of painting, academy of fine arts, tsinghua university: zhang ding's sketching



中国艺星网/编发/自然

China Yixing network/braiding/nature



张  仃  

(1917-2010)


张仃先生是20世纪至今我国教育界涌现出来的,具有重要影响力的杰出革命文艺家和美术教育家。张仃一生与中国现代波澜壮阔的革命史和新中国美术教育事业发展休戚相关,亲历了中国现代文艺思潮和中国现代美术重大事件的演进。


Mr. Zhang ding is an outstanding revolutionary writer and art educator with great influence emerging from the education circle of China in the 20th century. Zhang ding's life is closely related to the magnificent revolutionary history of modern China and the development of art education in new China.



1937年秋,漫画宣传队在南京防空洞前合影,左二为张仃先生

In the autumn of 1937, the cartoon publicity team took a photo in front of the nanjing dugout, with Mr. Zhang ding on the second left



张仃的写生

Zhang ding's sketching


文/包林

The text/BaoLin


张仃有十八般武艺,能在不同的历史时期承担不同的历史使命,这让他的一生波澜壮阔。但我也看到一位笃定、守恒的张仃,例如他一直坚持在自然中写生,写生也是张仃最为持久的生命状态。


晚清以来的中国画变得有问题,是因西学东渐多了一个外来的参考系。当年康有为拿西画来比,觉得自己的家当只有大刀长矛抵不过别人的洋枪洋炮,究其原因是文人的师古之画泄了阳气。例如四王称作画要有唐人气韵、宋人丘壑及元人笔墨,方为大成,但他们的画后学若不看题跋,四王便会被混为一王。此况当属中国画长期在一个封闭的系统里自我循环的结果,也是许多民国青年留洋改学西画的原因。


Zhang dingdinghas 18 kinds of martial arts, which can undertake different historical missions in different historical periods, which makes his life magnificent. However, I also saw a determined and conserved zhang ding. For example, he always insisted on sketching from nature, which was also the most lasting life state of zhang ding.


Since the late qing dynasty, Chinese painting has become problematic because of the eastward spread of western learning with an external reference frame. When kang youwei compared his western paintings, he felt that his only possession was a big sword and a long spear, but he could not compete with other people's foreign guns. For example, the four Kings said that paintings should have the style of the tang people, the song people and the yuan people. This situation is the result of the self-circulation of Chinese painting in a closed system for a long time, which is also the reason why many young people in the republic of China studied western painting in foreign countries.



1938年,抗日艺术队出发前在西安合影, 后排左五为张仃先生

In 1938, before the anti-japanese art team set out, they took a group photo in xi 'an


但后来的张仃毕竟是有使命感和责任感的掌门人,他在关注某些貌似激进的思潮,这些思潮在建国初期乃至改革开放时期都出现过,张仃不接受中国画任由外力的嘲弄或羞辱,或被阉割,早在1955年就刊文拒绝了虚无和保守这两个死对头——既要反左也要反右。但只是反对还不行,他思考的是如何才能出新——从传统的内部发轫,让老树发新芽。


据张朗朗说他的父亲当年每天都在上班的路上与李可染讨论中国画的出路问题,最后决意用宣纸毛笔来对景写生,通过写生来疏通艺术与自然的血脉。张仃不但这样想也这样一直做了,从他与李可染、罗铭1954年春的江南写生开始,写生时长近半个世纪。


But then Zhang Ding, after all, there is a sense of mission and sense of responsibility, he focused on some seemingly radical ideas, these ideas at the beginning of the founding and the reform and opening period, there have been, Zhang Ding don't accept Chinese paintings allow teasing or humiliated, force or castration, as early as 1955 published stories refused nothing and keep the two rival, both to the left will anti-rightist movement. But opposition is not enough. What he thinks about is how to bring forth new things, starting from the inside of tradition and making old trees sprout.


According to zhang langlang, his father used to discuss the way out of Chinese painting with li keran on the way to work every day. Finally, he decided to use xuan paper and brush to sketch from the scene, so as to dredge the blood relationship between art and nature. Zhang ding not only thought like this but also did it all the time. He began to sketch in the spring of 1954 with li keran and luo Ming in the south of the Yangtze river for nearly half a century.



1940年,张仃与张光宇、胡考、丁聪、特伟一起去重庆

In 1940, zhang ding went to chongqing with zhang guangyu, hu kao, ding cong and te wei


中国画是否因写生而满血复活不得而知,但我的确看到了一个因写生而朝气蓬勃的张仃。特别是建国以后,张仃从1954年(37岁)开始写生到2002年(85岁)停笔,其间因文革中断,形成了他写生的两个主要阶段。如果将之重新衔接,就能见其在绘画语言上的探索过程,即从眼观的风景转向了心目合一的山水。


前期阶段(1950-60年代),张仃的写生以彩墨为主,这段时期的写生尺幅都不大,有不少表现现实生活的内容,且以固定的视角取景,甚至是近距离的——只截取观看对象的一部分入画,再勒线填色并注重对象光影及冷暖关系的变化。


后期阶段(1970-90年代),张仃的写生以焦墨为主,作品多见于册页、长卷,另有不少钢笔或铅笔速写。这段时期张仃创作了许多大幅山水,但写生也不全是为搜尽奇峰打草稿,张仃常在题跋上注明此作为“日课”、“晨课”等,意在练笔,甚至晚年时将多年前的速写拿出来重画,称之为“古稀拾遗”,属生命旅程的记忆。


Whether Chinese painting is full of blood due to sketching is unknown, but I did see a vibrant due to sketching zhang ding. Especially after the founding of the People's Republic of China, zhang ding started sketching from 1954 (at the age of 37) to 2002 (at the age of 85). If it is reconnected, we can see its exploration process in the painting language, that is, from the view of the landscape to the mind of the landscape.


In the early stage (1950-1960s), zhang ding's sketching was dominated by colored ink. During this period, the sketching ruler was not large, and there were a lot of contents showing the real life. Moreover, the painting was taken from a fixed perspective, or even from a close distance -- only a part of the object to be watched was used in the painting.


In the later period (1970-1990s), zhang ding's sketches were mainly coke ink, most of which were seen in albums and long volumes, and many other sketches were written in pen or pencil. During this period, zhang ding created many large mountains and rivers, but sketching is not only a way to draft for the search of the most peculiar peaks. Zhang dingchang often marks this as "day class" and "morning class" on the inscriptions and postscript, which is intended to practice writing. In his later years, he even repainted the sketches of many years ago, which is called "picking up ancient relics" and is the memory of the journey of life.



1954年,江南写生

1954, jiangnan sketching


张仃写生从风景到山水的转变是渐进式的,这里面有一个从外到内的消化过程,并在1980年代中期发生了明显的变化,例如:


1、视角:写生从固定视角拓展为移动视角,视域越来越大,张仃自言是在“手执赶山鞭”将不同方位的景汇集重构,册页容得下大山大水,特别是他的写生长卷,表明张仃用上了郭熙所说的“平远”方式在观景。


2、光影:张仃前期的写生是风景素描式的,而此时的画面上少了许多明暗的光影皴擦。一般而言,光的表现是靠画面的留白,投影则是带有方向性的。但此时张仃画面上的光已随空间的流动变成散漫的光,甚至留白不再是为了表现光,也就不再会有单一方向的影。


The transformation of zhang ding's sketching from landscape to landscape is gradual. There is a process of digestion from the outside to the inside, and obvious changes have taken place in the mid-1980s, such as:


1. Perspective: sketching is expanded from a fixed perspective to a mobile perspective, with a larger and larger scope. Zhang ding's self-statement is to collect and reconstruct the scenes in different directions in "holding the whip to drive the mountain".


2, light and shadow: zhang ding early sketch is landscape sketch type, and at this time on the screen a lot of light and shadow brush less. Generally speaking, the performance of light depends on the blank space of the picture, and the projection is directional. However, at this time, the light in the zhang ding picture has changed into scattered light along with the flow of space, and even the white space is no longer to express light, so there will no longer be shadows in a single direction.



1956年张仃与毕加索

In 1956, zhang ding and Picasso


3、用笔:这段时期点线面的铺陈更为主动和自由,画面变得舒朗,用笔变得简约,线不再是物像轮廓的勾勒,只是在意会物像的明暗或转折,甚至出现了少见的没骨画法,我感到此时张仃的画面语言似乎越来越接近另一个人。


这样的写生到了1990年代,张仃以往擅长表现的光影又时不时地在写生中出现了,例如1994年写生的《豫晋古道》, 记录了冬日正午的古庙寒枝被暖阳沐浴。但这个时期他的画面语言总体上是对以往写生经验的概括和贯通,是瓜熟蒂落的结果。


3. Use of pen: during this period, the arrangement of dot, line and surface became more active and free, the picture became comfortable and the pen became simple, the line was no longer the outline of the object, but only the light and shade or transition of the object, and even a rare boneless painting method appeared. I felt that at this time, zhang ding's painting language seemed to be more and more close to another person.


In the 1990s, zhang ding's light and shadow, which she used to be good at, appeared from time to time in her sketching. For example, in 1994, she sketched the ancient road of yu jin, which recorded the cold branches of the ancient temple being bathed by the warm sun at noon in winter. However, his painting language in this period is generally the summary and mastery of his previous sketching experience, which is the result of his maturity.



1962年,张仃、李绵璐、黄能馥在云南写生    

In 1962, zhang ding, li mianlu and huang nengfu sketched in yunnan


以上的写生变化显示了张仃一直在从两个方面汲取养料:师造化,也师前人。1954年张仃江南写生前购得黄宾虹的山水册页,又在杭州专程拜访了他。张仃一生只论述过两个比他年长的画家,齐白石与黄宾虹。


1958年张仃在《美术》杂志刊文《试谈齐、黄》,把“北齐南黄”都夸了一通,赞齐白石为百鸟传神,为万虫写照,做的是笔墨的减法,减到极致;也赞黄宾虹师古人,更师造化,做的是笔墨的加法,且做到了极致。张仃虽对齐、黄二人溢美有加,但实际上此时的他已做出了自己的选择。


张仃1984年卸任行政职务,这终于让他可以静心写生,静心研究存于身边达30年之久的黄宾虹山水册页了,由此他的画面语言也出现了明显的变化。1989年,张仃在黄宾虹的故乡安徽歙县做了《全面开展对黄宾虹的研究》的发言,张仃自称是黄宾虹的小学生,在他的心目中,黄宾虹是满足了四个条件的大画家:师造化,师古人,读万卷书,行万里路。张仃在晚年“拟”黄宾虹和倪赞的作品,籍此向前人学习,与古人沟通,正如黄宾虹通过弘仁这座桥来走近倪赞,张仃也正是通过黄宾虹这座桥来连接古今的。


笃定守恒的张仃终于在自然和传统中都找到了自己生命的源泉,这两种源泉在他的笔下潺潺交汇,为我们展现了什么叫浑厚华滋,什么叫山高水长。


The above changes of sketching show that zhang ding has been absorbing nourishment from two aspects: master nature and master predecessors. In 1954, zhang ding jiangnan bought huang binhong's mountain and water album before he wrote it, and paid a special visit to him in hangzhou. Zhang ding life only discussed two older than him painter, qi baishi and huang binhong.


In 1958, zhang ding published an article "on qi and huang" in the magazine of fine arts. He praised the northern qi and the southern huang, and praised qi baishi for expressing the spirit of birds and the portrayal of insects. Huang binhong also praised the ancients, more division of nature, do is the addition of ink, and to achieve the ultimate. Although zhang ding is aligned, huang erren is excessive beautiful add, but actually right now he already made his choice.


Zhang ding stepped down as an administrator in 1984, which finally enabled him to draw from nature in peace and study huang binhong's mountains and rivers album, which had been around for 30 years. Thus, his picture language also changed significantly. In 1989, zhang ding in shexian county, anhui province, the hometown of huang binhong, made a speech on comprehensively developing the study of huang binhong. Zhang ding claimed to be huang binhong's primary school student. In his later years, zhang ding "drew up" the works of huang binhong and ni zan, by which he learned from others and communicated with the ancients. Just as huang binhong approached ni zan through hongren bridge, zhang ding also connected the ancient and modern times through huang binhong bridge.


Zhang ding, who was determined to be conserved, finally found the source of his life in both nature and tradition. These two sources intersect in his works, and show us what is called vigorous huazi and what is called high mountain and long river.



(本文为包林教授在11月1日张仃百年诞辰纪念学术报告会上的发言)

(this article was delivered by professor bao Lin at the academic report meeting on the centenary of zhang ding's birth on November 1.)



包 林

BaoLin


2009 年至今为清华大学美术学院绘画系教授、博士生导师

Since 2009, he has been a professor and doctoral supervisor in the department of painting, academy of fine arts, tsinghua university



Zhang ding old teacher for product hin to appreciate



《昆仑颂》

96X180CM  1988年

Kunlun ode

X180cm 96 to 1988



《昆仑颂》(局部)  焦墨画    

96×180CM  1988年

Kunlun ode (part) coke ink painting

96 x 180 cm in 1988



张 仃   郝窑

水墨纸本 镜片    2001年作68×45 cm

Numerous zhang hao kiln

In 2001, the lens of ink paper was made 68 45 cm



张 仃  塞上清明

水墨纸本 镜片    1991年作  68×67.8 cm

Zhang ding's fortress is clear and bright

In 1991, the lens was 68 67.8 cm



张 仃   灵岩山民居

水墨纸本 镜心    1989年作  68×68 cm

Zhang ding lingyan mountain folk house

The mirror center of the ink paper was 68 68 cm in 1989



张 仃   九寨沟飞瀑图

水墨纸本 镜片    1983年作  75.6×82.6 cm

Zhang ding jiuzhaigou waterfall map

Ink-paper lens was made in 1983 to be 75.6 82.6 cm



张 仃   幽居

水墨纸本 镜片    1996年作  83×76 cm

A numerous of living

In 1996, the lens was 83 76 cm



张 仃   梧桐民居

水墨纸本 镜片    2002年作  45.6×68.1 cm

Zhang ding wutong residence

Ink-paper lens was made in 2002 to be 45.6 68.1 cm



张 仃   终南山下神禾源

设色纸本 镜片    1987年作  75.8×83.6 cm

Zhang ding zhongnan mountain xia shen he yuan

The tinted paper lens was 75.8 83.6 cm in 1987



张 仃    泰山胜境图

水墨纸本 镜心    1983年作  95.5×66.4 cm

Zhang ding mountain scenery map

The mirror center of ink paper was 95.5 66.4 cm in 1983



张 仃    四里场

水墨纸本 镜心     67.5×46.5 cm

Zhang ding four li field

Ink paper mirror center 67.5 46.5 cm



《昆仑颂》

中国画  96X180CM  1988年

Kunlun ode

Chinese painting 96X180CM 1988




泉州开元寺古柏

137.2cmx70cm

Ancient cypress of kaiyuan temple in quanzhou

137.2 cmx70cm



《丽江老街》  

中国画  68X138CM  1990年

Old street lijiang

Chinese painting 68X138CM 1990



竹深无踪迹  

焦墨   68厘米×68厘米  1995年

There is no trace of bamboo

Coke ink 68 cm x 68 cm 1995



绿静春深  

76厘米×84厘米  1990年  

Still in the spring of deep green

76 cm x 84 cm 1990



山神庙  

95厘米×89厘米  1994年  

based

95 cm x 89 cm 1994



古槐石屋  

96厘米×90厘米  1997年  

Ancient stone

96 cm x 90 cm 1997



画人行脚  

68厘米×68厘米  1990年  

Each drawing person

68 cm x 68 cm 1990



座岩口晨光  

178厘米×95厘米  1996年  

Morning light at zuimokou

178 cm x 95 cm 1996



湘西小镇  

95厘米×89厘米  1994年  

Xiangxi town

95 cm x 89 cm 1994



野村日当午    

95厘米×65厘米  1992年  

Nomura is noon

95 cm x 65 cm 1992



霜华古堡  

95厘米×89厘米  1996年  

Frost China castle

95 cm x 89 cm in 1996



皖南屋白  

68厘米×68厘米  1994年

Kunlun ode

The White House in the south of anhui

68 cm x 68 cm 1994



西湖堤畔  

彩墨画   45厘米×45厘米  1954年

The west side of the lake

Colour ink painting 45 cm x 45 cm 1954



《万树光连峰头白》  1994年

Wan shu guang lian feng tou bai (1994)



《太行烟云》   1991年

Taihang yanyun, 1991



《雨后千山铁铸成》  1990年

Qian shan iron cast after rain, 1990



《幽谷鸣泉》  1990年

Valley springs, 1990



大槐  68.6cmx97cm

68.6 cmx97cm big tree



太行秋收   68.5cm×68cm

Taihang autumn harvest 68.5cm 68cm



林海    68cm×68cm

Lin hai 68 cm by 68 cm



《阳春白雪》  1994年

Highbrow, 1994



《武陵源瑞雪》  1996年

Ruixue, wulingyuan, 1996



《故宫雪柳》  20世纪70年代

Snow willow in the Forbidden City in the 1970s




《北海春雪》  20世纪70年代

North sea spring snow, 1970s



《昆仑颂》

20181225zhanding19.

Kunlun ode

20181225 zhanding19.



《西岳夕照图》  

700X300CM   1983年

Xiyue sunset

X300cm 700 to 1983



吐鲁番古道  68X138cm

The ancient road of turpan is 68X138cm



(左)刘超老师和恩师张仃先生

Mr. Liu chao and Mr. Zhang ding



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works


刘超作品

Liu chao works



焦墨作品赏析

Appreciation of coke ink works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works




刘超作品

Liu chao works



刘超作品

Liu chao works



画家刘超的重彩作品

The works of  painter liu chao



画家刘超的重彩作品

The works of  painter liu chao



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